Also revise 1 The use qualitative reagents to test for a range of foods e. In certain instances, mRNA stability is subject to regulation.
Diffusion is the spreading of the particles of any substance in solution, or particles of a gas, resulting in a net movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Know that the role of stomata and guard cells are to control gas exchange and water loss.
With electron microscopes, using a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light, you gain a much higher resolution seeing much smaller objects e. You should understand the consequences of faulty valves. In multicellular organisms the smaller surface area to volume ratio means surfaces and organ systems are specialised for exchanging materials.
Immune reactions initially caused by a pathogen can trigger allergies such as skin rashes and asthma.
Artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant, or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery.
Be able to calculate and compare surface area to volume ratios. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place. He was a great Indian Scholar and had contributed immensely to the freedom movement in India.
VL sequences are subjected to additional point mutagenesis to generate even more variability—hence the name. The trachea and bronchi secrete mucus which traps pathogens and cilia waft the mucus to the back of the throat where it is swallowed. The effect of alcohol on the liver and brain function.
The serial binding of transcription factors to these elements may either directly disrupt the structure of the nucleosome or prevent its re-formation.
You need to understand the three overall stages of the cell cycle but do not need to know the different phases of the mitosis stage. Knowledge of the names of the heart valves is not required. Antibiotics, such as penicillin, are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infective bacteria inside the body.
Appreciate the need and use of an artificial heart, valve replacement, artificial blood e. This means that it can be used to study cells in much finer detail. The dynamics of the formation and disruption of nucleosome structure are therefore an important part of eukaryotic gene regulation and the processes involved are as follows- i Histone acetylation and deacetylation is an important determinant of gene activity.
Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. Temperature must be controlled by use of a water bath or electric heater. In mitosis one set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell and the nucleus divides.
Knowledge and understanding of stem cell techniques are not required. Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are required for investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics. This deletion of unused genetic information is accomplished by selective DNA recombination that removes the unwanted coding DNA while retaining the required coding sequences: Immunoglobulins are composed of two polypeptides, heavy about 50 kDa and light about 25 kDa chains.
The left ventricle pumps blood around the rest of the body. Once inside the body our immune system is triggered which is usually strong enough to destroy the pathogen and prevent disease.
You should be able to recognise different types of blood cells in a photograph or diagram, and explain how they are adapted to their functions - you should have observed and drawing blood cells seen under a microscope.
Appreciate the need and use of an artificial heart, valve replacement, artificial blood e.
organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle. Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include viruses, chromatin and chromosomal structure, questions in the G.
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